Hispanics flooded into California, Florida and Texas and accounted for about one-fourth of the nation's total population growth in the first half of this decade, the Census Bureau reports.
Those states and New York each now have more than 1 million Hispanics, the bureau said in its first detailed analysis of minority populations since the 1980 census.Sixteen states, led by New York, had more than 1 million blacks as of 1985, while California had the most Hispanics and other minorities, the study found.
Blacks comprise the nation's largest minority at 28.9 million, the study reported. New York had the largest black population at 2.7 million, followed by California with 2.1 million blacks.
But the black population of California was growing faster, adding 243,000 between 1980 and 1985, compared to a 219,000 increase for the Empire State.
The nation's Hispanic population jumped from 14.3 million in 1980 to 17.5 million in 1985 through a combination of high birth rates and international migration. Although they were only 6.3 percent of the U.S. population in 1980, Hispanics made up about one-fourth of the 12 million national population increase during the next half-decade, the report said.
California has the largest Hispanic population, the report showed, at 5.9 million - one-third of all Hispanics in the nation.
Texas was second at 3.7 million followed by New York at 1.9 million and Florida with 1.1 million.
California added 1.3 million Hispanics between 1980 and 1985, while Texas gained 700,000. Florida, New York and Illinois also added more than 100,000 Hispanics each.
Among states with a million or more blacks, the fastest growth rate for that group, 16 percent, was posted in Florida.
Mississippi had the largest proportion of blacks in its population, 36 percent, the report found, followed by South Carolina, 31 percent, and Louisiana, 30 percent.
During the first half of this decade only West Virginia and the District of Columbia had a decline in black population.
More than four out of five blacks reside in metropolitan areas, the bureau found. And the shift continued to be in favor of cities with blacks migrating out of rural Southern regions and into urban areas.
The report added that four metropolitan areas have more than 1 million black residents - New York (3.2 million), Chicago (1.6 million), Los Angeles (1.2 million) and Philadelphia (1.1 million).
The Census Bureau says Utah's black population was 11,800 in 1985, an increase of 1,800 from 1980. Utah's Hispanic population rose 11,700 over the same period to 70,600.