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WEAPONS-TESTING DOCUMENTS LISTED

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Key: The listing below categorizes all tests and incidents in four groupings: germ, nerve (or chemical), radiation and nuclear. Symbols are included at the start of each listing to denote which type of test or incident is involved.

- - germ^ - nerve or chemical

* - radiation

+ - nuclear

Note: The underground nuclear bomb tests listed below are only those where the government acknowledged at least a slight release of radiation to the atmosphere. Hundreds of other underground tests were conducted where the government says all radiation was contained underground - such tests are not listed here.

1945

- Throughout the year, the Army conducted open-air tests on undisclosed dates on undisclosed public lands with bacillus subtilis, niger variety. The Army said it is a safe simulant of more-dangerous germ weapons, but some scientists say it can also cause infections.

1949

* 1949 to 1952 - Dugway Proving Ground dropped nonradioactive bomb casings over the Great Salt Lake as part of experiments to develop bombs that could radiologically contaminate small areas.

- July to November - An unknown number of open-air tests were conducted by the Army on undisclosed public lands with bacillus subtilis, generally considered a safe simulant of more-dangerous biological arms.

* Oct. 22 - Cluster bombs filled with radioactive materials were dropped from 15,000 feet at Dugway Proving Ground and radioactively contaminated 0.6 of a square mile. It had a total of 260 curies of radiation.

* Nov. 30 - Cluster bombs filled with radioactive materials were dropped from 15,000 feet at Dugway Proving Ground and radioactively contaminated 0.8 of a square mile. It had released 1,506 curies of radiation (1,000 times more than the Three Mile Island nuclear reactor accident).

1950

- June to November - Possible open-air tests with undisclosed "pathogens," or germs that cause serious disease, may have been conducted at Dugway Proving Ground. Army lists say they are "unsubstantiated."

* Aug. 4 - Dugway Proving Ground tested a cluster bomb to spread radioactive particles of tantalum. It exploded 1,450 feet above the ground, releasing 480 curies of radiation (33 times more than the Three Mile Island nuclear reactor accident), contaminating 1.7 square miles on the test grid; 69 percent of radiation released was not accounted for by grid monitors.

* Aug. 6 - Dugway Proving Ground tested a cluster bomb to spread radioactive particles of tantalum. It exploded on the ground, contaminating 0.89 of a square mile on the test grid - but some particles might have spread "indefinitely" in some directions. It used 480 curies of radioactive material.

* Aug. 11 - Dugway Proving Ground conducted four tests exploding different shapes of radioactive metal to see which would best spread contamination. They each used 26 curies of radiation.

* Sept. 5 - Dugway Proving Ground tested a cluster bomb that spread radioactive metal. It exploded at a height of 1,680 feet, releasing 930 curies and contaminating two square miles of the test grid; 62 percent of expected radiation was not accounted for by monitors on the grid.

* Sept. 7 - Dugway Proving Ground tested a cluster bomb that spread radioactive tantalum, exploding at 2,000 feet, releasing 3,900 curies and contaminating 3.2 square miles on the grid; 75 percent of expected radiation was not accounted for by grid monitors.

* Sept. 13 - Dugway Proving Ground conducted 15 tests of small dust generators that spread radioactive specks. Each was filled with 1.1 curies of radiation.

* November - Documents show Dugway Proving Ground planned to test a cluster bomb to spread a whopping 30,000 curies of tantalum - but do not show whether the test actually occurred.

1951

- Throughout the year, psittacosis, which causes parrot fever, was spread in open-air tests by Dugway Proving Ground on undisclosed dates. The Army said it was unsure if tests were confined to Army lands.

^ Throughout the year, the Army conducted 19 open-air tests of arms filled with nerve agents GA or GB at Dugway Proving Ground on undisclosed dates.

* Sometime in 1951, documents show Dugway Proving Ground planned to drop radioactive pellets from hoppers in high-altitude aircraft, but do not show if it actually happened.

+ Jan. 27 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Able in Operation Ranger. Had energy yield of 1,000 tons of TNT.

+ Jan. 28 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Baker in Operation Ranger. Had energy yield of 8,000 tons of TNT.

+ Feb. 1 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Easy in Operation Ranger. Had energy yield of 1,000 tons of TNT.

+ Feb. 2 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Baker-2 in Operation Ranger. Had energy yield of 8,000 tons of TNT.

+ Feb. 6 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Fox in Operation Ranger. Had energy yield of 22,000 tons of TNT.

* May 29 - Dugway Proving Ground exploded four different shapes of radioactive munitions on 50-foot poles to see which would best spread contamination.

- June 1 to Aug 26 - Coxiella burnetii, which causes potentially deadly Q fever, was spread in open-air tests by Dugway Proving Ground. Army said it was unsure if tests were confined to Army lands.

+ Oct. 22 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Able in Operation Buster. Had energy yield of less than 100 tons of TNT.

+ Oct. 28 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Baker in Operation Buster. Had energy yield of 3,500 tons of TNT.

+ Oct. 30 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Charlie in Operation Buster. Had energy yield of 14,000 tons of TNT.

+ Nov. 1 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Dog in Operation Buster. Had energy yield of 21,000 tons of TNT.

* Nov. 3-4 - Dugway Proving Ground conducted nines tests of small radioactive dust generators dropped from airplanes, exploding as high as 5,760 feet above ground in winds of up to 38 miles an hour. Each sphere released between 7.4 and 17.8 curies.

+ Nov. 5 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Easy in Operation Buster. Had energy yield of 31,000 tons of TNT.

* Nov. 7 - Dugway Proving Ground dropped a cluster bomb of radioactive tantalum, exploding 1,700 feet above the ground, releasing 612 curies and contaminating 1.05 square miles on the grid. Only 26 percent of expected radiation was accounted for by grid monitors.

* Nov. 8 - Dugway Proving Ground dropped a cluster bomb of radioactive tantalum, exploding at 1,050 feet above ground, releasing 756 curies and contaminating 1.22 square miles on the grid.

* Nov. 7-8 - Four tests at Dugway exploded different shapes of radioactive munitions to see which would spread radiation the farthest. Each munition had between 275 and 403 curies of radiation.

+ Nov. 19 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Sugar in Operation Jangle. Had energy yield of 1,200 tons of TNT.

+ Nov. 29 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Uncle in Operation Jangle. Had energy yield of 1,200 tons of TNT.

1952

- Throughout the year, the Army conducted 38 open-air tests of arms filled with nerve agents GA or GB at Dugway Proving Ground on undisclosed dates.

- Feb. 18 to May 27 - The Army spread wheat rust spores, which can destroy wheat crops, in open-air tests on "nonpublic domain" lands at Dugway Proving Ground.

- March 27 - An antivirulent strain of pasteurella pestis, which causes the plague, was used in an open-air test by Dugway Proving Ground. Army said it was unsure if tests were confined to Army lands.

+ April 1 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Able in Operation Tumbler-Snapper. Had energy yield of 1,000 tons of TNT.

- April 9 - Pasteurella tularensis, which causes potentially deadly tularemia, was used in open-air tests by Dugway Proving Ground. Army said it was unsure if tests were confined to Army lands.

+ April 15 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Baker in Operation Tumbler-Snapper. Had energy yield of 1,000 tons of TNT.

+ April 22 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Charlie in Operation Tumbler-Snapper. Had energy yield of 31,000 tons of TNT.

+ May 1 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Dog in Operation Tumbler-Snapper. Had energy yield of 19,000 tons of TNT.

+ May 7 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Easy in Operation Tumbler-Snapper. Had energy yield of 12,000 tons of TNT.

- May 12 - Brucella suis, which can cause potentially deadly brucellosis or undulant fever, was used in an open-air test by Dugway Proving Ground. Army said it was unsure if tests were confined to Army lands.

* May 20 - Dugway Proving Ground conducted four tests exploding different shapes of radioactive munitions on 50-foot poles. They each released between 337 and 421 curies of radiation and contaminated up to 0.33 square miles on the grid.

* May 21-27 - Dugway Proving Ground conducted 16 tests of radioactive "dust generator" spheres dropped from airplanes. Nine may have been duds, and three were never located. Each test released 38.9 to 40 curies of radiation.

+ May 25 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Fox in Operation Tumbler-Snapper. Had energy yield of 11,000 tons of TNT.

- June - Brucella suis and brucella melitensis, which can cause potentially deadly disease, were used in open-air tests by Dugway Proving Ground. Army said it was unsure if tests were confined to Army lands.

+ June 1 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named George in Operation Tumbler-Snapper. Had energy yield of 15,000 tons of TNT.

+ June 5 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named How in Operation Tumbler-Snapper. Had energy yield of 14,000 tons of TNT.

- July to August - Brucella suis, which can cause brucellosis, was spread in open-air tests by Dugway Proving Ground. Army said it was unsure if tests were confined to Army lands.

- July 9 - Pasteurella tularensis, which causes potentially deadly tularemia, was spread in open-air tests by Dugway Proving Ground. Army said it was unsure if tests were confined to Army lands.

^ July 16 - Dugway Proving Ground sprayed nerve agent GB from an F-80 fighter flying 480 miles an hour at a height of 125 feet.

^ July 22 - Dugway Proving Ground sprayed nerve agent GB from an F-80 fighter flying 480 miles an hour at a height of 100 feet.

^ July 29 - Dugway Proving Ground sprayed nerve agent GB from an F-80 flying 480 miles an hour at a height of 50 to 75 feet.

- August to October - Brucella suis, which can cause brucellosis, was spread in open-air tests by Dugway Proving Ground. Army said it was unsure whether tests were confined to Army lands.

- Aug. 21 - Coxiella burnetii, which causes potentially deadly Q fever, was used in open-air tests by Dugway Proving Ground. Army said it was unsure whether tests were confined to Army lands.

- September - Brucella suis and brucella melitensis, which can cause potentially deadly disease, were used in open-air tests by Dugway Proving Ground. The Army said it was unsure whether tests were confined to Army lands.

- September to November - Coxiella burnetii, which causes potentially deadly Q fever, was used in open-air tests by Dugway Proving Ground. Army said it was unsure whether tests were confined to Army lands.

- Sept. 12 to May 26, 1953 - Wheat stem rust, which can destroy wheat crops, was used in open-air tests at "nonpublic domain" lands at Dugway Proving Ground.

* Sept. 23 - Dugway Proving Ground exploded five radioactive munitions in different shapes from 50-foot poles to see which would best spread contamination. Four tests that functioned released radiation in the amouts of 626.9, 571.3, 359.4 and 607 curies.

- Oct. 9 - "Pasteurella" was used in open-air tests by Dugway Proving Ground. Army is unsure whether tests were confined to Army lands.

* November - A radiological weapon test of unknown type occurred at Dugway Proving Ground.

^ Nov. 13 - Deadly nerve agent GB was sprayed at Dugway Proving Ground from an F-80 fighter flying 480 miles an hour at a height of 100 feet.

^ Nov. 18 - Deadly nerve agent GB was sprayed at Dugway Proving Ground from an F-80 fighter flying 480 miles an hour at a height of 100 feet.

- Nov. 19 - Clostridium botulinum toxin, which can cause deadly botulism, was used in open-air tests by Dugway Proving Ground. Army is unsure whether tests were confined to Army lands.

^ Nov. 20 - Deadly nerve agent GB was sprayed at Dugway Proving Ground from an F-80 fighter flying 480 miles an hour at a height of 250 feet.

^ Nov. 25 - Deadly nerve agent GB was sprayed at Dugway Proving Ground from an F-80 fighter flying 480 miles an hour at a height of 100 feet.

- December - Brucella melitensis, which can cause potentially deadly disease, was used in open-air tests by Dugway Proving Ground. Army is unsure whether tests were confined to Army lands.

^ Dec. 19 - Deadly nerve agent GA was sprayed at Dugway Proving Ground by an F-80 flying 480 miles an hour at a height of 100 feet.

^ Dec. 30 - Deadly nerve agent GA was sprayed at Dugway Proving Ground by an F-80 flying 480 miles an hour at a height of 100 feet.

1953

^ Throughout the year, the Army conducted 109 open-air tests with arms filled with nerve agents GA or GB at Dugway Proving Ground on undisclosed dates.

^ Throughout the year, Dugway Proving Ground conducted 38 open-air tests involving nerve agents GA and GB to test hazards with leaking arms on airplanes and nerve agent attacks on airplanes.

^ Jan. 6 - Deadly nerve agent GA was sprayed at Dugway Proving Ground from an F-80 flying 480 miles an hour at a height of 100 feet.

^ Jan. 8 - Deadly nerve agent GA was sprayed at Dugway Proving Ground from an F-80 flying 480 miles an hour at a height of 100 feet.

^ Jan. 13 - Deadly nerve agent GA was sprayed at Dugway Proving Ground from an F-80 flying 480 miles an hour at a height of 100 feet.

^ Jan. 26 - Deadly nerve agent GB was sprayed at Dugway Proving Ground from an F-80 fighter flying 480 miles an hour at a height of 25 feet.

^ Jan. 28 - Deadly nerve agent GA was sprayed at Dugway Proving Ground by an F-47N fighter flying 310 miles an hour at a height of 100 feet.

^ Feb. 2 - Deadly nerve agent GA was sprayed at Dugway Proving Ground by an F-47M fighter flying 310 miles an hour at a height of 100 feet.

^ Feb. 10 - Deadly nerve agent GB was sprayed at Dugway Proving Ground from an F-80 fighter flying 480 miles an hour at a height of 25 feet.

^ Feb. 12 - Deadly nerve agent GB was sprayed at Dugway Proving Ground from an F-80 fighter flying 480 miles an hour at a height of 25 feet.

+ March 17 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Annie in Operation Upshot-Knothole. Had energy yield of 16,000 tons of TNT.

+ March 24 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Nancy in Operation Upshot-Knothole. Had energy yield of 24,000 tons of TNT.

- March 24 - Pasteurella tularensis, which causes tularemia, was used in open-air tests by Dugway Proving Ground. Army is unsure whether tests were confined to Army lands.

+ March 31 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Ruth in Operation Upshot-Knothole. Had energy yield of 200 tons of TNT.

+ April 6 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Dixie in Operation Upshot-Knothole. Had energy yield of 11,000 tons of TNT.

+ April 11 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Ray in Operation Upshot-Knothole. Had energy yield of 200 tons of TNT.

^ April 17 - Deadly nerve agent GB was sprayed at Dugway Proving Ground by an F3D-2 aircraft flying 360 knots an hour at a height of 25 feet.

+ April 18 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Badger in Operation Upshot-Knothole. Had energy yield of 23,000 tons of TNT.

- April 21 - Pasteurella tularensis, which causes tularemia, was used in open-air tests by Dugway Proving Ground. Army is unsure whether tests were confined to Army lands.

^ April 21 - Deadly nerve agent GB was sprayed at Dugway Proving Ground by an F3D-2 aircraft flying 358 knots an hour at a height of 35 feet.

+ April 25 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Simon in Operation Upshot-Knothole. Had energy yield of 43,000 tons of TNT.

^ April 30 - Deadly nerve agent GB was sprayed at Dugway Proving Ground by an F3D-2 aircraft flying 360 knots an hour at a height of 20 feet.

- May and June - Open-air tests at Dugway used bacillus subtilis, serratia marcescens, aspergillus fumigatus and "fluorescent particles" (possibly toxic cadmium sulfide), all of which were considered by the Army to be safe, but others say they could still be dangerous.

^ May 5 - Deadly nerve agent GB was sprayed at Dugway Proving Ground by an F3D-2 aircraft flying 360 knots an hour at a height of 35 feet.

^ May 7 - Deadly nerve agent GB was sprayed at Dugway Proving Ground by an F3D-2 aircraft flying 360 knots an hour at a height of 30 feet.

+ May 8 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Encore in Operation Upshot-Knothole. Had energy yield of 27,000 tons of TNT.

^ May 13 - Deadly nerve agent GB was sprayed in two separate tests the same day at Dugway Proving Ground by an F3D-2 aircraft flying 360 knots an hour at a height of 25 to 40 feet.

+ May 19 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Harry in Operation Upshot-Knothole. Had energy yield of 32,000 tons of TNT.

* May 23 - Two large tests were planned at Dugway Proving Ground. One was to drop 100,000 curies of radioactive tantalum (6,667 times as much as Three Mile Island) over four square miles. The other was to spread 10,000 curies over a one-square mile area. Documents do not show whether the tests occurred, but the Army assumed they had when it conducted a 1989 study on what radiation threat might still be present then.

+ May 25 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Grable in Operation Upshot-Knothole. Had energy yield of 15,000 tons of TNT.

+ June 4 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Climax in Operation Upshot-Knothole. Had energy yield of 61,000 tons of TNT.

- June 17 - Open-air test at Dugway used serratia marcescens and bacillus subtilis.

- June 25 - Open-air test at Dugway used serratia marcescens and bacillus subtilis.

- July 13 to Oct. 14 - Open-air tests at Dugway used bacillus subtilis.

- July 13 - Open-air test at Dugway used bacillus subtilis.

- July 14 - Open-air test at Dugway used bacillus subtilis.

- July 21 to Sep. 24 - Open-air tests at Dugway spread wheat stem rust, a germ designed to kill wheat crops.

- Aug. 6 - Open-air test at Dugway used bacillus subtilis.

- Aug. 12 - Open-air test at Dugway used bacillus subtilis.

- Sept. 12 to May 26, 1953 - Open-air tests at Dugway spread wheat stem rust, a germ that can kill wheat crops.

- Oct. 15 - Open-air test at Dugway used bacillus subtilis.

- Nov. 12 to Dec. 16 - Open-air tests by Dugway used wheat stem rust, a germ designed to kill wheat crops.

1954

- Throughout the year, Army documents say, open-air tests of undisclosed biological warfare agents were conducted by Dugway on undisclosed dates. Army is unsure whether they were confined to Army lands.

^ Throughout the year, the Army conducted 171 open-air tests of arms filled with nerve agents GA or GB at Dugway Proving Ground on undisclosed dates. It also conducted three other tests on hazards of GB attack on airplanes.

- January to April - Open-air tests by Dugway Proving Ground used bacillus anthracis, which can cause deadly anthrax. Army is unsure whether tests were confined to Army lands.

- Jan. 21 - Open-air tests at Dugway used bacillus subtilis and "fluorescent particles" (possibly toxic cadmium sulfide).

- Jan. 27 - Open-air tests at Dugway used bacillus subtilis.

^ Feb. 10 - Deadly nerve agent GB was sprayed at Dugway Proving Ground by an F-80 fighter flying 470 miles an hour at a height of 30 feet.

- Feb. 12 - Open-air tests at Dugway used bacillus subtilis.

Feb. 16 - Deadly nerve agent GB was sprayed at Dugway Proving Ground by an F-80 fighter flying 470 miles an hour at a height of 130 feet.

- Feb. 17 - Open-air tests at Dugway used "fluorescent particles" (possibly toxic cadmium sulfide) as part of germ warfare tests.

^ Feb. 19 - Deadly nerve agent GB was sprayed at Dugway Proving Ground by an F-80 fighter flying 470 miles per hour at a height of 90 feet.

^ Feb. 24 - Deadly nerve agent GB was sprayed at Dugway Proving Ground by an F-80 fighter flying 470 miles per hour at a height of 65 feet.

- March 14 - Open-air tests at Dugway used "fluorescent particles" (possibly toxic cadmium sulfide) as part of germ warfare tests.

- April to August - Open-air tests by Dugway Proving Ground used wheat stem rust, a germ designed to kill wheat crops.

- April 7 - Open-air tests at Dugway used "fluorescent particles" (possibly toxic cadmium sulfide) as part of germ warfare tests.

- May 13 - Open-air tests at Dugway used bacillus subtilis.

- May 24 - Open-air tests at Dugway used bacillus subtilis.

- June 1954 to June 1955 - Open-air tests by Dugway Proving Ground used brucella suis, which can cause potentially deadly brucellosis or undulant fever.

- Sept. 4 to Feb. 21, 1956 - Open-air tests by Dugway Proving Ground used bacillus anthracis, which causes deadly anthrax. Army said it is unsure tests were confined to Army lands.

- October - Open-air tests at Dugway used bacillus subtilis and "fluorescent particles" (possibly toxic cadmium sulfide).

- Oct. 14 - Open-air tests at Dugway used wheat stem rust, a germ that can kill wheat crops.

- Oct. 27 - Open-air tests by Dugway Proving Ground used brucella suis, which can cause potentially deadly brucellosis or undulant fever. Army is unsure if tests were confined to Army lands.

- Oct. 29 - Open-air tests by Dugway Proving Ground used brucella suis, which can cause potentially deadly brucellosis or undulant fever. Army is unsure if tests were confined to Army lands.

- Nov. 3 - Open-air tests by Dugway Proving Ground used brucella suis, which can cause potentially deadly brucellosis or undulant fever. Army is unsure if tests were confined to Army lands.

- Nov. 12 - Open-air tests by Dugway Proving Ground used pasteurella tularensis, which causes potentially deadly tularemia. Army is unsure if tests were confined to Army lands.

- Nov. 15 to June 1955 - Open-air tests at Dugway used bacillus subtilis.

- Nov. 18 - Open-air tests by Dugway Proving Ground used pasteurella tularensis, which causes potentially deadly tularemia. Army is unsure if tests were confined to Army lands.

- Dec. 20 - Open-air tests by Dugway Proving Ground used brucella suis, which can cause potentially deadly brucellosis or undulant fever. Army is unsure if tests were confined to Army lands.

- Dec. 28 - Open-air tests by Dugway Proving Ground used brucella suis, which can cause potentially deadly brucellosis or undulant fever. Army is unsure if tests were confined to Army lands.

1955

^ Throughout the year, the Army conducted 129 open-air tests of arms filled with nerve agents GA or GB at Dugway Proving Ground on undisclosed dates. It also conducted seven tests of GB attack on airplanes.

- Jan. 6 - Open-air tests by Dugway Proving Ground used brucella suis, which can cause potentially deadly brucellosis or undulant fever. Army is unsure if tests were confined to Army lands.

- Jan. 12 - Open-air tests by Dugway Proving Ground used brucella suis, which can cause potentially deadly brucellosis or undulant fever. Army is unsure if tests were confined to Army lands.

+ Feb. 18 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Wasp in Operation Teapot. Had energy yield of 1,000 tons of TNT.

+ Feb. 22 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Moth in Operation Teapot. Had energy yield of 2,000 tons of TNT.

- March to Feb. 1956 - Open-air tests by Dugway Proving Ground used brucella suis, which can cause potentially deadly brucellosis or undulant fever. Army is unsure if tests were confined to Army lands.

- March to Feb. 1956 - Bacillus anthracis, which can cause deadly anthrax, was used in open-air tests by Dugway Proving Ground. Army is unsure if tests were confined to Army lands.

+ March 1 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Tesla in Operation Teapot. Had energy yield of 7,000 tons of TNT.

+ March 7 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Turk in Operation Teapot. Had energy yield of 43,000 tons of TNT.

+ March 12 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Hornet in Operation Teapot. Had energy yield of 4,000 tons of TNT.

- March 18 - Open-air tests by Dugway Proving Ground used coxiella burnetii, which causes potentially deadly Q fever. Documents say germ clouds floated off toward U.S.-40 (now I-15).

+ March 22 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Bee in Operation Teapot. Had energy yield of 8,000 tons of TNT.

+ March 23 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Ess in Operation Teapot. Had energy yield of 1,000 tons of TNT.

- March 23 - Open-air tests by Dugway Proving Ground used coxiella burnetii, which causes potentially deadly Q fever. Documents say germ clouds floated off toward U.S.-40 (now I-15).

+ March 29 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Apple-1 in Operation Teapot. Had energy yield of 14,000 tons of TNT.

+ March 29 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Wasp Prime in Operation Teapot. Had energy yield of 3,000 tons of TNT.

- March 31 - Open-air tests by Dugway Proving Ground used coxiella burnetii, which causes potentially deadly Q fever. Documents say germ clouds floated off toward U.S.-40 (now I-15).

- April 6 - Open-air tests by Dugway Proving Ground used brucella suis, which can cause potentially deadly brucellosis or undulant fever. Army is unsure if tests were confined to Army lands.

+ April 6 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named HA (High Altitude) in Operation Teapot. Had energy yield of 3,000 tons of TNT.

+ April 9 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Post in Operation Teapot. Had energy yield of 2,000 tons of TNT.

+ April 15 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Met in Operation Teapot. Had energy yield of 22,000 tons of TNT.

- April 15 - Open-air tests by Dugway Proving Ground used brucella suis, which can cause potentially deadly brucellosis or undulant fever. Army is unsure tests if were confined to Army lands.

- May - Open-air tests at Dugway used bacillus subtilis and "fluorescent particles" (possibly toxic cadmium sulfide).

- May and June - Open-air tests at Dugway used bacillus subtilis.

- May 4 - Open-air tests by Dugway Proving Ground used brucella suis, which can cause potentially deadly brucellosis or undulant fever. Army is unsure if tests were confined to Army lands.

+ May 5 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Apple-2 of Operation Teapot. Had energy yield of 29,000 tons of TNT.

+ May 15 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Zucchini of Operation Teapot. Had energy yield of 28,000 tons of TNT.

- July 12 - An open-air test by Dugway Proving Ground spread a cloud of coxiella burnetii (which causes Q fever) and toxic cadmium sulfide particles over 30 human soldiers, 75 rhesus monkeys and 300 guinea pigs and then monitored them for sickness (many did get sick, making the test a "success"). The cloud floated off toward Wendover. Guinea pigs lining U.S.-40 (now I-80), which is off the Dugway base, were used to monitor exposure to the disease.

- July 27 - Open-air tests at Dugway used bacillus subtilis and "fluorescent particles" (possibly toxic cadmium sulfide).

- August - Open-air tests at Dugway used serratia marcescens.

- Dec. 1 to Feb. 3, 1956 - Open-air tests at Dugway used bacillus subtilis.

1956

^ Throughout the year, the Army conducted 77 open-air tests of arms and rockets filled with nerve agents GA or GB at Dugway Proving Ground on undisclosed dates.

- Throughout the year, open-air biological warfare tests at Dugway used bacillus subtilis.

+ Jan. 18 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-name Project 56 No. 4; "very slight" energy yield.

- Spring to fall - Open-air tests at Dugway used serratia marcescens.

- August and September - Open-air tests at Dugway used bacillus subtilis.

1957

^ Throughout the year, the Army conducted 78 open-air tests of arms and rockets filled with nerve agents GA or GB at Dugway Proving Ground on undisclosed dates.

- Throughout the year, open-air tests at Dugway used bacillus subtilis and serratia marcescens on undisclosed dates.

+ May 28 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Boltzman of Operation Plumbbob. Had energy yield of 12,000 tons of TNT.

^ June through April, 1958 - Dugway Proving Ground conducted 19 open-air tests of 155-millimeter howitzer shells filled with deadly nerve agent VX.

+ June 2 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Franklin of Operation Plumbbob. Had energy yield of 140 tons of TNT.

+ June 5 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Lassen of Operation Plumbbob. Had energy yield of 0.5 tons of TNT.

+ June 18 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Wilson of Operation Plumbbob. Had energy yield of 10,000 tons of TNT.

- June 20 to 24 - Open-air tests at Dugway used bacillus subtilis and serratia marcescens on undisclosed dates.

+ June 24 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Priscilla of Operation Plumbbob. Had energy yield of 37,000 tons.

- July to August - Open-air tests at Dugway used bacillus subtilis.

+ July 5 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Hood of Operation Plumbbob. Had energy yield of 74,000 tons to TNT.

+ July 15 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Diablo of Operation Plumbbob. Had energy yield of 17,000 tons of TNT.

+ July 19 - Open-air nuclear missile test at Nevada Test Site, code-named John of Operation Plumbbob. Had energy yield of 2,000 tons of TNT.

+ July 24 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Kepler of Operation Plumbbob. Had energy yield of 10,000 tons of TNT.

+ July 25 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Owens of Operation Plumbbob. Had energy yield of 9,700 tons of TNT.

+ July 26 - Underground nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Pascal-A of Operation Plumbbob. Released some radiation. Had "slight" energy release.

- August to October - Open-air tests by Dugway Proving Ground used bacillus anthracis, which can cause deadly anthrax.

- August to April 1959 - Open-air tests by Dugway Proving Ground used pasteurella tularensis, which can cause potentially deadly tularemia.

+ Aug. 7 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Stokes of Operation Plumbbob. Had energy release of 19,000 tons of TNT.

+ Aug. 18 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Shasta of Operation Plumbbob. Had energy yield of 17,000 tons of TNT.

+ Aug. 23 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Doppler of Operation Plumbbob. Had energy yield of 11,000 tons of TNT.

+ Aug. 30 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Franklin Prime of Operation Plumbbob. Had energy yield of 4,700 tons of TNT.

+ Aug. 31 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Smoky of Operation Plumbbob. Had energy yield of 44,000 tons of TNT.

+ Sept. 2 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Galileo of Operation Plumbbob. Had energy yield of 11,000 tons of TNT.

+ Sept. 6 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Wheeler of Operation Plumbbob. Had energy yield of 197 tons of TNT.

+ Sept. 6 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Coulomb-B of Operation Plumbbob. Had energy yield of 300 tons of TNT.

+ Sept. 8 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Laplace of Operation Plumbbob. Had energy yield of 1,000 tons of TNT.

+ Sept. 14 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Fizeau of Operation Plumbbob. Had energy yield of 11,000 tons of TNT.

+ Sept. 16 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Newton of Operation Plumbbob. Had energy yield of 12,000 tons of TNT.

+ Sept. 23 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Whitney of Operation Plumbbob. Had energy release of 19,000 tons of TNT.

+ Sept. 28 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Charleston of Operation Plumbbob. Had energy release of 19,000 tons of TNT.

+ Oct. 7 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Morgan of Operation Plumbbob. Had energy release of 8,000 tons of TNT.

- Oct. 7 - A joint open-air test by Dugway Proving Ground and Hamilton Air Force Base, Calif., used bacillus subtilis.

- Oct. 23 - Open-air test at Dugway used pasteurella tularensis, which causes potentially deadly tularemia.

- Nov. 14 - Open-air test at Dugway used pasteurella tularensis, which causes potentially deadly tularemia.

+ Dec. 9 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Coulomb-C of Project 58, had energy yield of 500 tons of TNT.

1958

^ Throughout the year, the Army conducted 53 open-air tests of arms filled with nerve agents GA or GB at Dugway Proving Ground on undisclosed dates. Also burned a B-24 bomber with GB aboard to test hazards to ground personnel.

^ January and February - Dugway Proving Ground conducted three open-air tests of the M-55 rocket filled with deadly nerve agent VX.

- Jan. 18 - A joint open-air test by Dugway Proving Ground and Hamilton Air Force Base, Calif., used bacillus subtilis.

- Jan. 21 - A joint open-air test by Dugway Proving Ground and Hamilton Air Force Base, Calif., used bacillus subtilis.

^ February to March - Dugway Proving Ground conducted nine open-air tests of 8-inch howitzer shells filled with deadly nerve agent VX.

- April - Open-air tests at Dugway used pasteurella tularensis, which causes potentially deadly tularemia.

- May to July - Open-air tests by Dugway Proving Ground used bacillus anthracis, which can cause deadly anthrax.

^ July to February, 1959 - Dugway Proving Ground conducted 11 open-air tests of 8-inch howitzer shells filled with deadly nerve agent VX.

^ July through September - Dugway Proving Ground conducted nine open-air tests of 155-millimeter howitzer shells filled with deadly nerve agent VX.

- August and September - Open-air tests at Dugway used bacillus subtilis and serratia marcescens.

^ September through November - Dugway Proving Ground conducted seven open-air tests of land mines filled with deadly nerve agent VX.

+ Sept. 12 - Underground nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Otero of Operation Hardtack II, released some radiation to the atmosphere. Had energy yield of 38,000 tons of TNT.

+ Sept. 19 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Eddy of Operation Hardtack II. Had energy yield of 80,000 tons of TNT.

- Sept. 24 - Open-air tests at Dugway used bacillus subtilis and serratia marcescens.

+ Sept. 29 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Mora of Operation Hardtack II. Had energy yield of 2,000 tons of TNT.

+ Oct. 5 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Hidalgo of Operation Hardtack II. Had energy yield of 77 tons.

+ Oct. 10 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Quay of Operation Hardtack II. Had energy yield of 72 tons.

+ Oct. 13 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Lea of Operation Hardtack II. Had energy yield of 1,400 tons of TNT.

+ Oct. 15 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Hamilton of Operation Hardtack II. Had energy yield of 1.2 tons of TNT.

+ Oct. 16 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Dona Ana of Operation Hardtack II. Had energy release of 37 tons of TNT.

+ Oct. 17 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Vesta of Operation Hardtack II. Had energy release of 24 tons.

+ Oct. 18 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Rio Arriba of Operation Hardtack II. Had energy release of 90 tons.

+ Oct. 22 - Four open-air nuclear bomb tests at Nevada Test Site. Code names were: Socorro (6,000 tons), Wrangell (115 tons), Rushmore (188 tons) and Oberon (zero tons), all of Operation Hardtack II.

+ Oct. 24 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Catron of Operation Hardtack II. Had energy yield of 21 tons.

+ Oct. 26 - Three open-air nuclear bomb tests at Nevada Test Site. Code names were: Ceres (0.7 tons), Sanford (4,900 tons) and De Baca (2,200 tons), all of Operation Hardtack II.

+ Oct. 27 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Chavez of Operation Hardtack II. Had energy yield of 0.6 tons of TNT.

+ Oct. 30 - Two open-air and one underground nuclear bomb tests at Nevada Test Site. Open-air code names were Santa Fe (1,300 tons) and Titania (0.2 tons). Underground test, code-named Blanca, had "slight venting," releasing radiation to the atmosphere. That bomb had an energy yield of 22,000 tons. All part of Operation Hardtack II.

^ December and January, 1959 - Dugway Proving Ground conducted eight open-air tests of the M-55 rocket filled with deadly nerve agent VX.

1959

^ Throughout the year, the Army conducted 42 open-air tests of arms filled with nerve agents GA or GB at Dugway Proving Ground on undisclosed dates.

^ May through July - Dugway Proving Ground conducted 10 open-air tests of the M-55 rocket filled with deadly nerve agent VX.

- July - Open-air tests at Dugway Proving Ground used bacillus anthracis (which causes deadly anthrax), pasteurella tularensis (which causes the disease tularemia) and coxiella burnetii (which causes Q fever).

- July - Open-air tests at Dugway used bacillus subtilis.

- July to December 1960 - Open-air tests at Dugway used serratia marcescens and bacillus subtilis.

+* July 1 to 1964 - The Atomic Energy Commission tested nuclear-powered rocket motors in Nevada in eight open-air tests. The motors forced hydrogen through reactors and spewed it as radioactive exhaust to create thrust.

^ August - Dugway Proving Ground conducted 35 open-air tests of the M-55 rocket filled with deadly nerve agent VX.

+* Aug. 5 - Air Force simulated the meltdown of a small nuclear reactor at Dugway Proving Ground by melting reactor fuel in a high-temperature furnace. Radiation cloud spread for this and similar tests over next three months spread to the north, and was last detected headed toward U.S.-40 (now Interstate-80). Released an estimated 37.32 curies of radiation (more than twice as much as Three Mile Island).

+* Aug. 10- Air Force simulated the meltdown of a small nuclear reactor at Dugway Proving Ground by melting reactor fuel in a high-temperature furnace. Released an estimated 32.85 curies of radiation (more than twice as much as Three Mile Island).

^ September through December - Dugway Proving Ground conducted demonstrations weekly by firing 12 arms filled with nerve agent GB at fortifications with caged animals inside, as soldiers watched their deaths via TV.

+* Sept. 8 - Air Force simulated the meltdown of a small nuclear reactor at Dugway Proving Ground by melting reactor fuel in a high-temperature furnace. Released an estimated 28.19 curies of radiation (nearly twice as much as Three Mile Island).

+* Sept. 12 - Air Force simulated the meltdown of a small nuclear reactor at Dugway Proving Ground by melting reactor fuel in a high-temperature furnace. Released an estimated 24.95 curies of radiation (67 percent more than Three Mile Island).

+* Sept. 18 - Air Force simulated the meltdown of a small nuclear reactor at Dugway Proving Ground by melting reactor fuel in a high-temperature furnace. Released an estimated 22.63 curies of radiation (50 percent more than Three Mile Island).

+* Sept. 30 - Air Force simulated the meltdown of a small nuclear reactor at Dugway Proving Ground by melting reactor fuel in a high-temperature furnace. Released an estimated 32.15 curies of radiation (more than twice as much as Three Mile Island).

+* Oct. 24 - Air Force simulated the meltdown of a small nuclear reactor at Dugway Proving Ground by melting reactor fuel in a high-temperature furnace. Released an estimated 18.87 curies of radiation (26 percent more than Three Mile Island).

+* Oct. 25 - Air Force simulated the meltdown of a small nuclear reactor at Dugway Proving Ground by melting reactor fuel in a high-temperature furnace. Released an estimated 19.27 curies of radiation (28 percent more than Three Mile Island).

1960

^ Throughout the year, the Army conducted 29 open-air tests of arms filled with nerve agent GA or GB at Dugway Proving Ground on undisclosed dates.

^ Throughout the year, Dugway Proving Ground conducted demonstrations on 40 of 52 weeks by firing 12 arms filled with nerve agent GB at fortifications with caged animals inside, as soldiers watched their deaths via TV.

^ February and March - Dugway Proving Ground conducted 11 open-air tests of the M-55 rocket filled with deadly nerve agent VX.

^ March to May - Dugway Proving Ground conducted three open-air tests of the M-55 rocket filled with deadly nerve agent VX.

- April and May - Open-air tests by Dugway Proving Ground used pasteurella tularensis, which causes potentially deadly tularemia.

- April to February 1962 - A series of open-air experiments at Dugway Proving Ground used pasteurella tularensis, which causes potentially deadly tularemia.

- September - Open-air tests at Dugway used bacillus subtilis.

- September - Open-air tests by Dugway Proving Ground used botulinum toxin (which causes deadly botulism), bacillus anthracis (which causes deadly anthrax) and "Coccidioides" (probably coccidioides immitis, a fungus that causes sometimes deadly Valley fever).

^ September through May, 1960 - Dugway Proving Ground conducted 14 open-air tests of 155-millimeter howitzer shells filled with deadly nerve agent VX.

1961

^ Throughout the year, Dugway Proving Ground conducted demonstrations on 40 of 52 weeks by firing 12 arms filled with nerve agent GB at fortifications with caged animals inside, as soldiers watched their deaths via TV.

^ Sometime in 1961 - Dugway Proving Ground conducted an experiment to assess troop operations in areas contaminated with deadly nerve agent VX.

^ January through May - Dugway Proving Ground conducted 12 open-air tests of the M-55 rocket filled with deadly nerve agent VX.

+ Jan. 19 - A B-52 bomber crashed near Monticello. A 1993 Deseret News probe showed it may have had a nuclear bomb aboard - and one of the crew froze to death while the Air Force searched for it. The Air Force has denied a bomb was aboard.

- Jan. 30 to Sept. 27 - A series of open-air tests by Dugway Proving Ground used coxiella burnetii, which causes potentially deadly Q fever.

^ March through May - Dugway Proving Ground conducted four open-air tests of 155-millimeter howitzer shells filled with deadly nerve agent VX.

- March 27 to May 16 - A series of open-air tests by Dugway Proving Ground used bacillus subtilis.

* Summer 1961 (possibly 1962) - About 10 Utah State Prison inmates were used in a medical radiation test. They were injected with an unknown radioactive substance and then given a series of tests over a week period. Several inmates involved blame it for later health problems ranging from deformed children to severe headaches and bone disease.

- June - Open-air tests at Dugway used bacillus subtilis.

- August and September - Open-air tests at Dugway used bacillus subtilis.

^ September - Dugway Proving Ground conducted an open-air test with 24 rounds of 155-millimeter howitzer shells filled with deadly nerve agent VX.

+ Sept. 15 - Underground nuclear bomb test "with accidental release of radioactivity detected off site" at Nevada Test Site, code-named Antler of Operation Nougat. Had energy release of 2,600 tons of TNT.

+ Dec. 22 - Underground nuclear bomb test with "accidental release of radioactivity detected off site" at Nevada Test Site, code-named Feather of Operation Nougat. Had energy yield of less than 20,000 tons of TNT.

1962

^ Throughout the year, the Army conducted 43 open-air tests of arms filled with nerve agents GA or GB at Dugway Proving Ground on undisclosed dates.

^ Throughout the year, Dugway Proving Ground conducted demonstrations on 40 of 52 weeks by firing 12 arms filled with nerve agent GB at fortifications with caged animals inside, as soldiers watched their deaths via TV.

+ March 1 - Underground nuclear bomb test with "accidental release of radioactivity detected off site" at Nevada Test Site, code-named Pampas of Operation Nougat. Had energy release of less than 20,000 tons of TNT.

+ March 5 - Underground nuclear bomb test with "accidental release of radioactivity detected off site" at Nevada Test Site, code-named Danny Boy of Operation Nougat. Had energy release of 430 tons of TNT.

^ April 1 - About 698 pounds of deadly nerve agent GB was sprayed at Dugway Proving Ground by aircraft flying at 190 feet.

+ April 14 - Underground nuclear bomb test with "accidental release of radioactivity detected off site" at Nevada Test Site, code-named Platte of Operation Nougat. Had energy release of 1,850 tons of TNT.

^ April 18 - About 175 pounds of nerve agent VX (one drop of which can kill) was sprayed at Dugway Proving Ground from an SD-2 drone aircraft flying 341 miles an hour at a height of 363 feet. Only 40.6 percent of the VX fell to the ground within four miles of the release line.

^ April 23 - About 175 pounds of deadly nerve agent VX was sprayed at Dugway Proving Ground from an SD-2 drone flying 354 miles an hour at a height of 335 feet. Only 56.5 percent of the VX fell to the ground within four miles of the release line.

^ May 12 - About 683 pounds of deadly nerve agent GB were sprayed at Dugway Proving Ground by aircraft from a height of 125 feet.

^ May 16 - About 641 pounds of deadly nerve agent GB were sprayed at Dugway Proving Ground by aircraft from a height of 175 feet.

^ May 19 - Underground nuclear bomb test with "accidental release of radioactivity detected off site" at Nevada Test Site, code-named Eel of Operation Nougat. Had energy release of less than 20,000 tons of TNT.

^ May 22 - About 301 pounds of nerve agent VX (one drop of which can kill) were sprayed at Dugway Proving Ground from a height of 250 feet. Only 34.3 percent dropped to the ground within four miles of the release line.

^ May 23 - About 700 pounds of deadly nerve agent GB were sprayed at Dugway Proving Ground by aircraft from a height of 125 feet.

^ May 27 - About 698 pounds of deadly nerve agent GB were sprayed at Dugway Proving Ground by aircraft from a height of 115 feet.

^ May 29 - About 297 pounds of deadly nerve agent VX were sprayed at Dugway Proving Ground from a height of 245 feet. About 62.2 percent fell to the ground within four miles of the release line.

^ May 31 - About 693 pounds of deadly nerve agent GB were sprayed at Dugway Proving Ground by aircraft from a height of 160 feet.

+ June 13 - Underground nuclear bomb test with "accidental release of radioactivity detected off site" at Nevada Test Site, code-named Des Moines of Operation Nougat. Had energy release of less than 20,000 tons of TNT.

+ July 6 - Underground nuclear bomb test with "release of radioactivity detected off site" at Nevada Test Site, code-named Sedan of Operation Storax. Had yield of 104,000 tons.

+ July 7 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Little Feller II of Operation Sunbeam. Had energy yield of less than 20,000 tons of TNT.

+ July 11 - Underground nuclear bomb test with "release of radioactivity detected off site" at Nevada Test Site, code-named Johnnie Boy of Operation Storax with an energy yield of 500 tons of TNT.

+ July 14 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Small Boy of Operation Storax. Had energy yield of less than 20,000 tons of TNT.

+ July 17 - Open-air nuclear bomb test at Nevada Test Site, code-named Little Feller I of Operation Storax. Had energy yield of less than 20,000 tons of TNT.

^ July 20 - About 324 pounds of deadly nerve agent VX were sprayed at Dugway Proving Ground by aircraft.

^ July 24 - About 322 pounds of deadly nerve agent VX were sprayed at Dugway Proving Ground by aircraft.

^ July 25 - About 693 pounds of deadly nerve agent VX were sprayed at Dugway Proving Ground by aircraft.

^ August - Dugway Proving Ground conducted an open-air test of 24 rounds of 155-millimeter howitzer shells filled with deadly nerve agent VX.

- August to February 1963 - Open-air tests by Dugway Proving Ground used bacillus subtilis and pasteurella tularensis, which causes potentially deadly tularemia.

^ Aug. 9 - About 2,800 pounds of nerve agent VX (one drop of which will kill) were sprayed at Dugway Proving Ground by an SD-5 drone flying 510 miles an hour at a height of 190 feet. Only 11 percent was recovered within four miles of the release line.

^ Sept. 13 - About 2,800 pounds of deadly nerve agent VX were sprayed at Dugway Proving Ground by an SD-5 drone flying 530 miles an hour at a height of 1,280 feet. Only 4 percent dropped to the ground within four miles of the release line.

^ Sept. 14 - About 2,800 pounds of deadly nerve agent VX were sprayed at Dugway Proving Ground by an SD-5 drone flying 550 miles an hour at a height of 535 feet. Only 24 percent dropped to the ground within four miles of the release line.

- October to March 1963 - Open-air tests at Dugway used bacillus subtilis.

+ Oct. 19 - Underground nuclear bomb test with "accidental release of radioactivity detected off site" at Nevada Test Site, code-named Bandicoot of Operation Storax. Had energy yield of less than 20,000 tons of TNT.

- November to March 1963 - Open-air tests by Dugway Proving Ground and Fort Yuma Test Station, Ariz., and Fort Detrick, Md., used bacillus subtilis.

- November to March 1963 - Open-air tests by Dugway Proving Ground used pasteurella tularensis, which can cause deadly tularemia, and "Coccidioides" (possibly coccidioides immitis, a fungus that causes sometimes deadly Valley fever).

- November to March 1963 - Open-air tests by Dugway Proving Ground used coccidioides uranine and coxiella burnetii, which can cause potentially deadly Q fever.

1963

^ Throughout the year, the Army conducted 13 open-air tests of arms filled with nerve agents GA or GB at Dugway Proving Ground on undisclosed dates.

^ Throughout the year, Dugway Proving Ground conducted demonstrations on 40 of 52 weeks by firing 12 arms filled with nerve agent GB at fortifications with caged animals inside as soldiers watched their deaths via TV.

- Jan. 16-29 - Open-air tests at Dugway used bacillus subtilis.

- Jan. 30 to April 11 - Open-air tests by Dugway Proving Ground used pasteurella tularensis, which causes potentially deadly tularemia.

^ March through September, 1964 - Dugway Proving Ground conducted four open-air tests of land mines filled with deadly nerve agent VX.

- March 28 to April 11 - Open-air tests by Dugway Proving Ground used pasteurella tularensis, which causes potentially deadly tularemia.

^ April - Dugway Proving Ground conducted an open-air test of 18 rounds of 155-millimeter howitzer shells filled with deadly nerve agent VX.

- May 17 to 21 - Open-air tests on undisclosed public, not Army, lands by Dugway Proving Ground used "fluorescent particles," possibly toxic cadmium sulfide, as part of germ warfare testing.

+ June 5 - Underground nuclear bomb test with "release of radioactivity detected off site" at Nevada Test Site, code-named Yuba of Operation Storax. Had energy yield of less than 20,000 tons of TNT.

- Aug. 15 - Open-air tests on undisclosed public, not Army, lands by Dugway Proving Ground used "fluorescent particles," possibly toxic cadmium sulfide, as part of germ warfare tests.

- Sept. 4 - Open-air tests on undisclosed public, not Army, lands by Dugway Proving Ground used "fluorescent particles," possibly toxic cadmium sulfide, as part of germ warfare tests.

- October to March 1964 - Open-air tests at Dugway used bacillus subtilis.

- October to March 1964 - Open-air tests by Dugway Proving Ground used "Coccidioides," (possibly coccidioides immitis, a fungus that causes sometimes deadly Valley fever).

- Nov. 7-14 - Open-air tests at Dugway used bacillus subtilis.

+ Dec. 12 - Underground nuclear bomb test with "accidental release of radioactivity detected off site" at Nevada Test Site, code-named Eagle of Operation Niblick. Had energy yield of less than 20,000 tons of TNT.

1964

^ Throughout the year, the Army conducted 13 open-air tests of arms filled with nerve agents GA or GB at Dugway Proving Ground on undisclosed dates.

^ Throughout the year, Dugway Proving Ground conducted demonstrations on 40 of 52 weeks by firing 12 arms filled with nerve agent GB at fortifications with caged animals inside, as soldiers watched their deaths via TV.

^ Sometime in 1964 - Dugway Proving Ground conducted four experiments to assess troop operations in areas contaminated with deadly nerve agent VX.

+ Jan. 23 - Underground nuclear bomb test with "release of radioactivity detected off site" at Nevada Test Site, code-named Oconto of Operation Niblick. Had energy yield of less than 20,000 tons of TNT.

- Jan. 24 to Feb. 3 - Open-air tests at Dugway Proving Ground used "unknown agents" as part of germ warfare tests.

^ March - Dugway Proving Ground conducted an open-air test with 12 rounds of 8-inch howitzer shells filled with deadly nerve agent VX during high winds of 21 miles per hour.

+ March 13 - Underground nuclear bomb test with "accidental release of radioactivity detected off site" at Nevada Test Site, code-named Pike of Operation Niblick. Yield of less than 20,000 tons of TNT.

- August and September - Open-air tests by Dugway used Uranine dye and bacillus subtilis as part of germ warfare tests.

+ Aug. 19 - Underground nuclear bomb test with "accidental release of radioactivity detected off site" at Nevada Test Site, code-named Alva of Operation Whetstone. Yield of less than 20,000 tons of TNT.

^ October through February, 1965 - Dugway Proving Ground conducted 30 open-air tests of the M-55 rocket filled with deadly nerve agent VX.

+ Dec. 5 - Underground nuclear bomb test with "accidental release of radioactivity detected off site" at Nevada Test Site, code-named Drill of Operation Whetstone. Yield of 3,400 tons of TNT.

+ Dec. 16 - Underground nuclear bomb test with "accidental release of radioactivity detected off site" at Nevada Test Site, code-named Parrot of Operation Whetstone. Yield of 1,300 tons of TNT.

+ Dec. 18 - Underground nuclear bomb test with "release of radioactivity detected off site" at Nevada Test Site, code-named Sulky of Operation Whetstone. Yield of 92 tons of TNT.

1965

^ Throughout the year, the Army conducted 12 open-air tests of arms filled with nerve agents GB or GA at Dugway Proving Ground on undisclosed dates.

^ Throughout the year, Dugway Proving Ground conducted demonstrations on 40 of 52 weeks by firing 12 arms filled with nerve agent GB at fortifications with caged animals inside as soldiers watched their deaths via TV.

^ Sometime in 1965 - Dugway Proving Ground conducted 10 open-air experiments on the "persistency of Agent GB for various temperatures."

+* Jan. 25 - The Atomic Energy Commission intentionally destroyed a nuclear-powered rocket motor being tested upwind from Utah in Nevada.

+ Feb 12 - Underground nuclear bomb test with "accidental release of radioactivity detected off site" at Nevada Test Site, code-named Alpaca of Operation Whetstone. Yield of less than 20,000 tons of TNT.

+ April 14 - Underground nuclear bomb test with "release of radioactivity detected off site" at Nevada Test Site, code-named Palanquin of Operation Whetstone. Yield of 4,300 tons of TNT.

+ May 7 - Underground nuclear bomb test with "accidental release of radioactivity detected off site" at Nevada Test Site, code-named Tee of Operation Whetstone. Yield of less than 20,000 tons of TNT.

+ June 16 - Underground nuclear bomb test with "accidental release of radioactivity detected off site" at Nevada Test Site, code-named Diluted Waters of Operation Whetstone. Yield of less than 20,000 tons of TNT.

+* June 25 - The Atomic Energy Commission tested a nuclear-powered rocket motor in Nevada, spewing radioactive exhaust for 10.5 minutes. Three days later, AEC monitoring found radioactive iodine at monitoring stations downwind in Nevada - but critics say it may have spread into Utah, too.

+* June 25 to early 1967 - 15 more nuclear-powered rocket motor tests occurred upwind from Utah in Nevada.

^ September though November, 1967 - Dugway Proving Ground conducted 12 open-air tests of the M-55 rocket filled with deadly nerve agent VX.

- Oct. 14 to Nov. 17 - Open-air tests by Dugway Proving Ground used pasteurella tularensis, which can cause potentially deadly tularemia.

1966

^ Throughout the year, the Army conducted 28 open-air tests of arms filled with nerve agents GA or GB at Dugway Proving Ground on undisclosed dates.

^ Throughout the year, Dugway Proving Ground conducted demonstrations on 40 of 52 weeks by firing 12 arms filled with nerve agent GB at fortifications with caged animals inside, as soldiers watched their deaths via TV.

^ Sometime in 1966 - Dugway Proving Ground conducted five open-air experiments on the downwind hazard of the destruction of M-55 rockets containing nerve agent.

+ March 5 - Underground nuclear bomb test with "accidental release of radioactivity detected off site" at Nevada Test Site, code-named Red Hot of Operation Flintlock. Yield of less than 20,000 tons of TNT.

^ April to June - Dugway Proving Ground conducted two open-air tests of 155-millimeter howitzer shells filled with deadly nerve agent VX.

+ April 23 - Underground nuclear bomb test with "accidental release of radioactivity detected off site" at Nevada Test Site, code-named Pin Stripe of Operation Flintlock. Yield of less than 20,000 tons of TNT.

- April 25 to June 6 - Open-air tests by Dugway Proving Ground used pasteurella tularensis, which can cause potentially deadly tularemia.

+ June 15 - Underground nuclear bomb test with "accidental release of radioactivity detected off site" at Nevada Test Site, code-named Double Play of Operation Flintlock. Yield of less than 20,000 tons of TNT.

- July 9 to Aug. 25 - Open-air tests by Dugway Proving Ground used pasteurella tularensis, which can cause potentially deadly tularemia.

+ Sept. 12 - Underground nuclear bomb test with "accidental release of radioactivity detected off site" at Nevada Test Site, code-named Derringer of Operation Flintlock. Yield of less than 20,000 tons of TNT.

1967

^ Throughout the year, Dugway Proving Ground conducted demonstrations on 40 of 52 weeks by firing 12 arms filled with nerve agent GB at fortifications with caged animals inside as soldiers watched their deaths via TV.

^ Sometime in 1967 - Dugway Proving Ground conducted 33 open-air experiments on the downwind hazard of the destruction of M-55 rockets containing nerve agent.

+ Jan. 19 - Underground nuclear bomb test with "accidental release of radioactivity detected off site" at Nevada Test Site, code-named Nash of Operation Latchkey. Yield of 20,000 to 200,000 tons of TNT.

+* February - A test of a nuclear-powered rocket motor upwind from Utah in Nevada released radioactive exhaust for 30 minutes.

- February - Open-air tests at Dugway used Bacillus subtilis.

^ February through April - Dugway Proving Ground conducted three open-air tests of land mines filled with deadly nerve agent VX.

- Feb. 15 to April 4 - Open-air tests by Dugway Proving Ground used pasteurella tularensis, which can cause potentially deadly tularemia, and coxiella burnetii, which causes Q fever.

+ June 26 - Underground nuclear bomb test with "controlled release of radioactivity detected off site" at Nevada Test Site, code-named Midi Mist of Operation Latchkey. Yield of less than 20,000 tons of TNT.

+ June 29 - Underground nuclear bomb test with "accidental release of radioactivity detected off site" at Nevada Test Site, code-named Umber of Operation Latchkey. Yield of less than 20,000 tons of TNT.

+ Aug. 31 - Underground nuclear bomb test with "accidental release of radioactivity detected off site" at Nevada Test Site, code-named Door Mist of Operation Crosstie. Yield of less than 20,000 tons of TNT.

1968

^ Throughout the year, the Army conducted 16 open-air tests of arms filled with nerve agents GA or GB at Dugway Proving Ground on undisclosed dates.

^ Throughout the year, Dugway Proving Ground conducted demonstrations on 40 of 52 weeks by firing 12 arms filled with nerve agent GB at fortifications with caged animals inside as soldiers watched their deaths via TV.

^ Sometime in 1968 - Dugway Proving Ground conducted nine open-air experiments on hazards of M-55 disposal, decontamination operations of nerve agents GB and VX and tests of protective garments.

+ Jan. 18 - Underground nuclear bomb test with "accidental release of radioactivity detected off site" at Nevada Test Site, code-named Hupmobile of Operation Crosstie. Yield of 7,400 tons of TNT.

+ Jan. 26 - Underground nuclear bomb test with "accidental release of radioactivity detected off site" at Nevada Test Site, code-named Cabriolet of Operation Crosstie. Yield of 2,300 tons of TNT.

^ March 5 - About 1,365 pounds each of deadly nerve agent VX were dropped by aircraft in two separate tests at Dugway Proving Ground.

+ March 12 - Underground nuclear bomb test with "radioactivity detected off site" at Nevada Test Site, code-named Buggy of Operation Crosstie. Yield of 5,400 tons of TNT.

^ March 13 - An F-4 Phantom fighter spread 2,730 pounds of nerve agent VX (one drop of which can kill) over Dugway Proving Ground, and wind carried small particles off the base into Skull Valley. More than 6,000 sheep died in the following days. In 1993, a Deseret News probe showed humans in Skull Valley likely had been exposed to nerve agent also, and it likely caused nervous-system ills they suffered through the years.

+ Dec. 8 - Underground nuclear bomb test with "radioactivity detected off site" at Nevada Test Site, code-named Schooner of Operation Bowline. Yield of 30,000 tons of TNT.

1969

^ January to June - Dugway Proving Ground conducted weekly demonstrations by firing 12 arms filled with nerve agent GB at fortifications with caged animals inside as soldiers watched their deaths via TV.

^ Sometime in 1969 - Dugway Proving Ground conducted 14 open-air experiments on hazards of M-55 disposal, decontamination operations of nerve agents GB and VX and tests of protective garments.

^ March to May - Dugway Proving Ground conducted six open-air test of 155-millimeter howitzer shells filled with deadly nerve agent VX.

+ Oct. 29 - Underground nuclear bomb test with "accidental release of radioactivity detected off site" at Nevada Test Site, code-named Pod of Operation Mandrel. Yield of 40,000 tons of TNT.

+ Nov. 13 - Underground nuclear bomb test with "accidental release of radioactivity detected off site" at Nevada Test Site, code-named Scuttle of Operation Mandrel. Yield of less than 20,000 tons of TNT.

1970

+ April 21 - Underground nuclear bomb test with "accidental release of radioactivity detected off site" at Nevada Test Site, code-named Snubber of Operation Mandrel. Yield of less than 20,000 tons of TNT.

+ May 5 - Underground nuclear bomb test with "radioactivity detected off site" at Nevada Test Site, code-named Mint Leaf of Operation Mandrel. Yield of less than 20,000 tons of TNT.

+ Dec. 18 - Underground nuclear bomb test with "accidental release of radioactivity detected off site" at Nevada Test Site, code-named Baneberry of Operation Emery. Yield of 10,000 tons of TNT.

1971

+ Nov. 24 - Underground nuclear bomb test with "accidental release of radioactivity detected off site" at Nevada Test Site, code-named Diagonal Line of Operation Grommet. Yield of less than 20,000 tons of TNT.

1976

- - A mysterious illness killed 50 wild horses at Orr Springs at Dugway Proving Ground. The state veterinarian ruled they died of thirst, even though they were adjacent to a spring - which had been recently improved with water trickling from a pipe into a trough. Critics questioned if Venezuelan equine encephalitis - an exotic horse disease used in Dugway lab experiments - may have killed the horses.

1978

- April 10 to May 18 - Four open-air trials at Dugway Proving Ground used serratia marcescens and bacillus subtilis to test feasibility of chemically neutralizing clouds of biologic arms simulants.

1979

- Oct. 3-17 - 26 open-air trials at Dugway Proving Ground used bacillus subtilis to test biologic agent detectors.

1980

+ Sept. 25 - Underground nuclear bomb test with "accidental release of radioactivity detected off site" at Nevada Test Site, code-named Riola of Operation Tinderbox. Yield of less than 20,000 tons of TNT.

1981

- June 16 to Sept. 4 - 43 open-air trials at Dugway Proving Ground used bacillus subtilis to test biologic agent detectors.

1982

- June 9-16 - 8 open-air trials at Dugway Proving Ground used bacillus subtillus to test biologic agent detectors.

1983

^ March 15 - An accident at a Tooele Army Depot pilot plant working on methods to safely burn nerve agent released amounts of unburned agent slightly above legal limits.

^ March 16 - An accident at a Tooele Army Depot pilot plant working on methods to safely burn nerve agent released 2.9 times the legal limit because workers had failed to replace filters saturated by an accident the previous day.

- July 27 to Aug. 3 - Two open-air tests at Dugway Proving Ground used bacillus subtilis to study a field test used to detect biologic warfare agents.

1984

- March 30 to April 5 - Thirteen open-air trials at Dugway Proving Ground used bacillus subtilis to evaluate systems designed to protect tanks from biologic attack.

- Aug. 14-24 - 46 open-air trials at Dugway Proving Ground use bacillus subtilis to evaluate biologic arms detection systems.

1985

^ Feb. 20 - An accident at a pilot plant at Tooele Army Depot working on methods to destroy nerve agent released agent in amounts up to 73.3 times the legal hourly limit.

^ May 14 - An accident at a pilot plant at Tooele Army Depot working on methods to destroy nerve agent released agent in amounts 67 percent above the legal hourly limit.

+ April 6 - Underground nuclear bomb test with "release of radioactivity detected off site" at Nevada Test Site, code-named Misty Rain of Operation Grenadier. Yield of less than 20,000 tons of TNT.

^ Nov. 20-21 - An accident at the Tooele Army Depot chemical arms destruction pilot plant released up to 19.3 times the allowable limit.

^ Dec. 4-5 - An accident at the Tooele Army Depot chemical arms destruction pilot plant released amounts 33 percent higher than the legal limit.

1986

+ March 22 - Underground nuclear bomb test with "radioactivity detected off site" at Nevada Test Site, code-named Glencoe of Operation Charioteer. Yield of 20,000 to 150,000 tons of TNT.

+ April 10 - Underground nuclear bomb test with "controlled release of radioactivity detected off site" at Nevada Test Site, code-named Mighty Oak of Operation Charioteer. Yield of less than 20,000 tons of TNT.

^ May 27-28 - An accident at the Tooele Army Depot chemical arms destruction pilot plant released amounts three times higher than the legal limit.

- Sept. 4-10 - 28 open-air trials at Dugway Proving Ground use bacillus subtilis and MS2 virus bacteriophage (a virus that grows only in bacteria) to evaluate biologic arms detection systems.

1987

^ Jan. 28 - An accident at the Tooele Army Depot chemical arms destruction pilot plant released amounts 50 percent above the legal limit, an estimated 1.5 pints of unburned nerve agent into the atmosphere (one drop of which can kill).