Manpower's suggestions for warding off a labor shortage by reducing demand for workers and increasing their supply:

Reduce demand by:

Computerization

Automation

Redesigning jobs and business processes

Offshoring

Outsourcing

Optimizing work forces

Increase supply by:

Migration

Education and training

Public-private initiatives

Targeting underemployed, diverse populations

Reskilling and upskilling workers

Targeting older workers

Offshoring

Cross-training

Being flexible