the summer of 1959, our family moved from Salt Lake City to the San
Fernando Valley, then a relatively sleepy, smogless suburb of Los
Angeles. L.A. was a big vibrant city with, even then, the glitz of
Hollywood. Yet it was a city full of optimism and more than the veneer
The Brooklyn Dodgers became the Los Angeles Dodgers in 1958 and
promptly beat the Chicago White Sox to claim the 1959 World Series.
"Bonanza" hit our TV screens in 1959, and other popular TV shows of
that year included "The Donna Reed Show," "Perry Mason," "Howdy Doody,"
"Father Knows Best" and the now iconic pre-revolution series "Leave it
Now comes Slate columnist, Fred Kaplan, with a new book, "1959, The
Year Everything Changed." Though it overstates (Can one year really be
the pivot point for a whole cultural change?), Kaplan shows that many
of the seeds of what became the '60s sprouted in 1959.
In his first chapter, Breaking the Chains, Kaplan notes that on Jan.
2, 1959, a Soviet rocket carrying the Lunik I space capsule blasted
past Earth's orbit and became the first man-made object to revolve
around the sun. "The flight of the Lunik set off a year when chains of
all sorts were broken with verve and apprehension — not just in the
cosmos, but in politics, society, culture, science and sex. A feeling
took hold that the breakdown of barriers in space, speed, and time made
other barriers ripe for transgressing."
One of the important pillars of his long rumination on the year 1959
is Kaplan's focus on the literary scene of that year and in particular,
challenges to the literary establishment and to obscenity standards.
There are a number of manifestations of the assault on then-settled
sensibilities. While Norman Mailer had been publishing for more than a
decade, it was in 1959 that he embarked on a new kind of book,
"Advertisements for Myself," which reflected a new kind of writing. In
"Advertisements," Mailer would, throughout the book, "interrupt the
narrative, recount how he came to write the piece, what was on his mind
and how he felt at the time, (and offer) the most blistering judgments
of others." The book marked the beginning of "two literary genres that
would transform American writing through the rest of the century: the
confessional memoir and the New Journalism."
1959 also brought the resurgence of Alan Ginsberg and his friend
Jack Kerouac. Ginsberg and Kerouac were initially rejected but later
embraced by the literary establishment. In earlier years, they had been
dubbed the leaders of the "beat generation." By 1959, the beat
generation had been transformed into beatniks.
Much of the assault on literary standards was fought in the courts.
In the late '50s and into 1959, Ginsberg's "Howl and Other Poems" was
declared obscene by customs officials. In early 1959, an unpublished
novel by William Burroughs was seized by the postmaster general and
declared obscene. Eventually D. H. Lawrence's "Lady Chatterley's Lover"
found its way into court. All these were tests of a 1957 Supreme Court
decision defining obscenity. By mid-July a federal court ruled that
"Lady Chatterley's Lover" was not obscene. While this was not the end
of obscenity cases, it clearly broke the back of obscenity
prosecutions. Kaplan notes, "there was an appetite for forbidden fruit,
wherever it was growing — and an audience for anyone who spat its seeds
in the faces of authority." If all this wasn't enough, Lenny Bruce made
his first appearance on television in April 1959 on the Steve Allen
Then came The Pill. On July 23, 1959, G. D. Searle Pharmaceuticals
filed an application with the FDA requesting permission to market the
drug Enovid, explicitly as a birth-control pill. The availability of
the pill was directly responsible for the dramatic decline of the
American birth rate in the 1960s. But more than its demographic
significance were the social consequences. Shortly after the pill was
approved, Gloria Steinem would write in Esquire magazine, "The Moral
Disarmament of Betty Co-ed," in which she predicted that the pill would
sire a new breed of "autonomous girls" who, like men, would be "free to
take sex, education, work, and even marriage when and how they like."
Next week: More on the '50s and '60s.