The Norwegian Nobel Committee has awarded the 2022 Nobel Prizes. Throughout October, the committee awards a total of six prizes from categories of physics, chemistry, medicine, literature, peace and economic sciences.
According to The New York Times, winners of the Nobel Prize will be awarded medals and diplomas during a ceremony in December in Stockholm.
Here are the 2022 prizes that have been awarded:
Nobel Prize in physics
This prize was awarded to Alain Aspect, John F. Clauser and Anton Zeilinger for their work in “pioneering quantum information,” according to the Nobel Prize site.
Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine
The awardee for this prize was Svante Pääbo and his research with “genomes of extinct hominins and human evolution.”
The prize was awarded last week, and according to NPR, Pääbo has paved the way in comparing the genome of modern humans to Neanderthals and Denisovans. His research showed the mixing of genes between species.
Nobel Prize in chemistry
The Nobel Prize in chemistry was awarded to Carolyn R. Bertozzi, Morten Meldal and K. Barry Sharpless, according to the Nobel Prize site. These scientists discovered molecule reactions that “snap together” to make compounds, per Reuters.
Nobel Prize in literature
The Nobel Prize in literature was awarded to Annie Ernaux. The committee awarded for Ernaux’s courage to uncover roots and estrangements of personal memory. NPR reports that the author was born in France and she is know for her work that blurs lines between memoir and fiction.
Nobel Peace Prize
The Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to Ales Bialiatski, Russian human rights organization Memorial and the Center for Civil Liberties, a Ukrainian human rights organization. They were awarded for their efforts in documenting war crimes and human right abuses.
Nobel Prize in economic sciences
How does someone get a Nobel Prize?
Winners of a Nobel Prize are first nominated by someone eligible — a person can’t nominate themselves. Eligible nominators are invited and fulfill the committee’s criteria, according to the Nobel Prize site.
After they are nominated, the winners are chosen by a majority vote from the Nobel committee.
What do Nobel Prize winners receive?
Nobel Prize winners receive a medal, diploma and a monetary reward. The amount depends on how much the Nobel committee has, but according to the Times, this year’s awardees will receive about $900,000.
When did the Nobel Prize start?
Nobel left behind a large fortune and in his will, he declared his money would be used to be distributed as prizes that “conferred the greatest benefit on mankind.”