2022 was a year marked by numerous tragic mass shootings.

From the 19 children and two teachers killed at Robb Elementary School in Uvalde, Texas, to the five people murdered at Club Q in Colorado Springs, countless lives have been impacted by mass shootings in the United States this year.

How many mass shootings were there in 2022?

There is no official FBI definition of a mass shooting, so definitions vary from group to group. This means that there is no official number of mass shootings that occurred in 2022.

However, the Gun Violence Archive, which defines a mass shooting as a shooting in which there are four or more people shot or killed — not including the shooter — recorded 641 mass shootings in 2022 as of Dec. 28.

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The online archive reported 690 mass shootings in 2021, the highest year on record. This means that 2022, with at least 641 mass shootings, had the second highest number of mass shootings in a year, according to the Gun Violence Archive.

Here’s a look back at some of mass shootings the Deseret News reported on in 2022:

May 14: Buffalo, New York

On May 14, a gunman shot and killed 10 Black people at a Tops supermarket in Buffalo, New York.

The suspect, 18-year-old Payton Gendron, had posted a racist screed online prior to the attack, the Deseret News reported.

In November, Gendron pleaded guilty to multiple counts of murder and one count of domestic terrorism motivated by hate.

Read more about the victims here.

May 15: Laguna Woods, California

On May 15, a gunman killed one person at a Presbyterian church in Laguna Woods, California.

Parishioners of the Irvine Taiwanese Presbyterian Church overcame and hogtied the shooter, preventing more violence, the Deseret News reported.

The suspect — David Chou, a 68-year-old man from Las Vegas — was charged with murder and hate crimes, according to the Los Angeles Times.

May 24: Uvalde, Texas

On May 24, a gunman killed 19 children andtwo2 teachers at Robb Elementary school in Uvalde, Texas.

The gunman, later identified by reports as 18-year-old Salvador Ramos, was in the school for over an hour before law enforcement shot and killed him, the Deseret News reported.

Read more about the victims here.

June 1: Tulsa, Oklahoma

On June 1, a gunman, later identified by police as Michael Louis, 45, killed four people at the St. Francis Hospital campus in Tulsa, Oklahoma, before killing himself, the Deseret News reported.

July 4: Highland Park, Illinois

On July 4, a gunman opened fire on an Independence Day parade in Highland Park, Illinois, killing seven.

According to reports, the suspect, Robert E. Crimo III, was indicted on 117 counts but pleaded not guilty to all counts.

Read more about the victims here.

July 17: Greenwood, Indiana

On July 17, a gunman, later identified by reports as 20-year-old Johnathan Douglas Sapirman, killed three people at the Greenwood Park Mall in Indiana before he was shot and killed by an armed bystander, the Deseret News reported.

Read more about the victims here.

Sept. 7: Memphis, Tennessee

On Sept. 7, a gunman shot and killed four people in Memphis, Tennessee, while livestreaming the shooting on Facebook live, the Deseret News reported.

According to reports, the suspect, 19-year-old Ezekiel Kelly, pleaded not guilty to 27 charges, including first-degree murder and conspiring to commit terroristic acts.

Oct. 13: Raleigh, North Carolina

On Oct. 13, a gunman shot and killed five people in Raleigh, North Carolina, the Deseret News reported.

According to reports, the suspect, 15-year-old Austin Thompson, is accused of killing five, including an off-duty police officer and his brother.

Read more about the victims here.

Nov. 13: Charlottesville, Virginia

On Nov. 13, a gunman opened fire on a campus bus returning to the University of Virginia campus, killing three members of the Cavaliers football team, the Deseret News reported.

According to The New York Times, the suspect, Christopher Darnell Jones Jr., 22, was charged with murder.

Nov. 20: Colorado Springs, Colorado

On Nov. 20, a shooter opened fire at a LGBTQ bar in Colorado Springs, Colorado, killing five, the Deseret News reported.

The suspect, 22-year-old Anderson Lee Aldrich, was charged with 305 counts, including murder and hate crimes, according to the Denver Post.

Read more about the victims here.

Nov. 22: Chesapeake, Virginia

On Nov. 22, a Walmart employee killed six people after opening fire on the break room at a Walmart in Chesapeake, Virginia, the Deseret News reported.

The shooter died from a self-inflicted gun wound, per The Associated Press.